Historically, law is a set of rules that govern social institutions and society. These rules are enforced by governmental institutions and individuals. Legal issues can arise from a variety of events, such as a criminal offense, an unexpected illness, a problem at work, or a family crisis. Typically, legal issues are resolved through a court decision.
There are a few different types of legal systems. These systems include common law, civil law, religious law, and customary law. These systems are split into five categories: civil, common law, religious, customary, and mixed. Each type of legal system has its own distinct features, however.
Common law legal systems use explicit acknowledgement of court decisions as “law”. These systems also use the doctrine of precedent, which means that a decision of one court binds future decisions of another court. These systems also use syllogism, which is a type of legal reasoning that relies on logic to solve problems. These systems often incorporate argumentative theories and analogy, which is the use of analogy to solve problems.
Civil law legal systems, by contrast, typically use less judicial decision-making. They also require less elaboration on the part of the judge. Civil law legal systems are shaded in blue on the map above.
Common law legal systems can be split into four categories: commercial law, civil procedure, evidence law, and transactional law. Commercial law involves business law, including contracts and property law. In addition, it includes tax law, which regulates income tax, and banking law, which sets minimum capital requirements for banks. In addition, it includes immigration law, which deals with rights for foreigners to live and work in a nation-state.
In addition, these legal systems also incorporate the concept of “natural law.” This concept originated in ancient Greek philosophy, but it reemerged in mainstream culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas. It is also used by some religious communities, including Islam and Christianity. In Israel, for instance, litigants can use religious laws, such as the Quran and Jewish Halakha.
Common law legal systems have been described as the “art of justice.” Law is often described as a science, which can be divided into three categories: the issue, the procedure, and the outcome. Each category has its own rules for legal interpretation. These rules include directives of linguistic interpretation, systemic interpretation, and the golden rule. In addition, these systems use canons of interpretation to make statutory interpretation possible.
The concept of “natural law” originated in ancient Greek philosophy, but it grew in connection with the idea of justice. In the 19th century, the concept was revived through the writings of Thomas Aquinas. In addition, religion plays an important role in law, with many legal theories based on religious precepts. These laws often refer to God’s word, and they typically imply that God’s word is not subject to change.
These systems also have many features in common with civil law legal systems. In addition, they may be divided into four categories: personal property, company law, labour law, and immigration law. Each category covers a different aspect of property law. The most complex category of property law is land law. Typically, land is divided into real property (which refers to the things attached to land), personal property (which refers to intangible rights), and trusts.